[et_pb_section transparent_background=”off” allow_player_pause=”off” inner_shadow=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on” make_fullwidth=”off” use_custom_width=”off” width_unit=”off” custom_width_px=”1080px” custom_width_percent=”80%” make_equal=”off” use_custom_gutter=”off” fullwidth=”on” specialty=”off” admin_label=”Section” disabled=”off”][et_pb_fullwidth_image src=”http://www.thecraftedword.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/Ne-Logo.jpg” show_in_lightbox=”off” url_new_window=”off” use_overlay=”off” animation=”left” admin_label=”Fullwidth Logo” use_border_color=”off” border_color=”#ffffff” border_width=”1px” border_style=”solid” disabled=”off”]
[/et_pb_fullwidth_image][/et_pb_section][et_pb_section transparent_background=”off” allow_player_pause=”off” inner_shadow=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on” make_fullwidth=”off” use_custom_width=”off” width_unit=”off” custom_width_px=”1080px” custom_width_percent=”80%” make_equal=”off” use_custom_gutter=”off” fullwidth=”off” specialty=”off” admin_label=”Section” disabled=”off”][et_pb_row make_fullwidth=”off” use_custom_width=”off” width_unit=”off” custom_width_px=”1080px” custom_width_percent=”80%” use_custom_gutter=”off” gutter_width=”3″ allow_player_pause=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on” make_equal=”off” parallax_1=”off” parallax_method_1=”on” parallax_2=”off” parallax_method_2=”on” parallax_3=”off” parallax_method_3=”on” parallax_4=”off” parallax_method_4=”on” admin_label=”Row” disabled=”off”][et_pb_column type=”4_4″ disabled=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on”][et_pb_text background_layout=”light” text_orientation=”left” admin_label=”Into Text” use_border_color=”off” border_style=”solid” disabled=”off”]

Writing help when you need it…

[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][/et_pb_section][et_pb_section transparent_background=”off” allow_player_pause=”off” inner_shadow=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on” make_fullwidth=”off” use_custom_width=”off” width_unit=”off” custom_width_px=”1080px” custom_width_percent=”80%” make_equal=”off” use_custom_gutter=”off” fullwidth=”on” specialty=”off” admin_label=”Section” disabled=”off”][et_pb_fullwidth_post_slider posts_number=”50″ include_categories=”147,5″ orderby=”date_desc” show_arrows=”on” show_pagination=”on” show_more_button=”on” more_text=”Read More” content_source=”off” use_manual_excerpt=”on” excerpt_length=”200″ show_meta=”on” background_layout=”light” show_image=”on” image_placement=”background” parallax=”on” parallax_method=”off” use_bg_overlay=”on” use_text_overlay=”off” remove_inner_shadow=”off” background_position=”default” background_size=”default” auto=”on” auto_speed=”5000″ auto_ignore_hover=”on” hide_content_on_mobile=”off” hide_cta_on_mobile=”off” show_image_video_mobile=”off” text_border_radius=”3″ admin_label=”Fullwidth Post Slider” meta_font_size=”16px” meta_letter_spacing=”0″ meta_line_height=”1em” custom_button=”off” button_text_size=”20″ button_letter_spacing=”0″ button_use_icon=”default” button_icon_placement=”right” button_on_hover=”on” button_letter_spacing_hover=”0″ disabled=”off”]
[/et_pb_fullwidth_post_slider][/et_pb_section][et_pb_section transparent_background=”off” allow_player_pause=”off” inner_shadow=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”off” make_fullwidth=”off” use_custom_width=”off” width_unit=”off” custom_width_px=”1080px” custom_width_percent=”80%” make_equal=”off” use_custom_gutter=”off” fullwidth=”on” specialty=”off” admin_label=”Section” disabled=”off”][et_pb_fullwidth_image src=”http://www.thecraftedword.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/Narrative-Logo.jpg” show_in_lightbox=”off” url_new_window=”off” use_overlay=”off” animation=”left” admin_label=”Fullwidth Image” use_border_color=”off” border_color=”#ffffff” border_width=”1px” border_style=”solid” disabled=”off”] [/et_pb_fullwidth_image][et_pb_fullwidth_portfolio fullwidth=”off” include_categories=”65,97,38,60,58,62,83,176″ show_title=”on” show_date=”off” background_layout=”light” auto=”off” auto_speed=”7000″ admin_label=”NARRATIVE ESSAY Portfolio” use_border_color=”off” border_color=”#ffffff” border_width=”1px” border_style=”solid” disabled=”off”]
[/et_pb_fullwidth_portfolio][et_pb_fullwidth_image src=”http://www.thecraftedword.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/Analysis-Logo.jpg” show_in_lightbox=”off” url_new_window=”off” use_overlay=”off” animation=”left” admin_label=”Fullwidth Image” use_border_color=”off” border_color=”#ffffff” border_width=”1px” border_style=”solid” disabled=”off”] [/et_pb_fullwidth_image][et_pb_fullwidth_portfolio fullwidth=”off” include_categories=”77,51,71,93,29,67,83,176″ show_title=”on” show_date=”on” background_layout=”light” auto=”off” auto_speed=”7000″ admin_label=”Fullwidth Portfolio” use_border_color=”off” border_color=”#ffffff” border_width=”1px” border_style=”solid” disabled=”off”]
[/et_pb_fullwidth_portfolio][et_pb_fullwidth_image src=”http://www.thecraftedword.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/Poetry-Logo.jpg” show_in_lightbox=”off” url_new_window=”off” use_overlay=”off” animation=”left” admin_label=”Fullwidth Image” use_border_color=”off” border_color=”#ffffff” border_width=”1px” border_style=”solid” disabled=”off”] [/et_pb_fullwidth_image][et_pb_fullwidth_portfolio fullwidth=”off” include_categories=”72,68,107″ show_title=”on” show_date=”on” background_layout=”light” auto=”off” auto_speed=”7000″ admin_label=”Poetry Portfolio” use_border_color=”off” border_color=”#ffffff” border_width=”1px” border_style=”solid” disabled=”off”]
[/et_pb_fullwidth_portfolio][/et_pb_section][et_pb_section transparent_background=”off” allow_player_pause=”off” inner_shadow=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on” make_fullwidth=”off” use_custom_width=”off” width_unit=”off” custom_width_px=”1080px” custom_width_percent=”80%” make_equal=”off” use_custom_gutter=”off” fullwidth=”on” specialty=”off” admin_label=”Section” disabled=”off”][et_pb_fullwidth_image src=”http://www.thecraftedword.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/Punctuation-Logo.jpg” show_in_lightbox=”off” url_new_window=”off” use_overlay=”off” animation=”left” admin_label=”Fullwidth Image” use_border_color=”off” border_color=”#ffffff” border_width=”1px” border_style=”solid” disabled=”off”] [/et_pb_fullwidth_image][/et_pb_section][et_pb_section transparent_background=”off” allow_player_pause=”off” inner_shadow=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on” make_fullwidth=”off” use_custom_width=”off” width_unit=”off” custom_width_px=”1080px” custom_width_percent=”80%” make_equal=”off” use_custom_gutter=”off” fullwidth=”off” specialty=”on” admin_label=”section” disabled=”off”][et_pb_column type=”1_3″ disabled=”off”][et_pb_text background_layout=”light” text_orientation=”left” admin_label=”Text” use_border_color=”off” border_style=”solid” disabled=”off”]

TheCraftedWord.org

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_image src=”http://www.thecraftedword.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/Crafted-Big-Logo2.gif” show_in_lightbox=”off” url_new_window=”off” use_overlay=”off” animation=”fade_in” sticky=”off” align=”left” force_fullwidth=”off” always_center_on_mobile=”on” admin_label=”Image” use_border_color=”off” border_color=”#ffffff” border_width=”1px” border_style=”solid” disabled=”off”]
[/et_pb_image][et_pb_text background_layout=”light” text_orientation=”left” admin_label=”Text” use_border_color=”off” border_style=”solid” disabled=”off”]

Tell Your Story

[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”2_3″ specialty_columns=”2″ disabled=”off”][et_pb_row_inner use_custom_gutter=”off” make_equal=”off” parallax_1=”off” parallax_method_1=”on” parallax_2=”off” parallax_method_2=”on” parallax_3=”off” parallax_method_3=”on” admin_label=”row_inner” disabled=”off”][et_pb_column_inner type=”4_4″ saved_specialty_column_type=”2_3″ disabled=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on”][et_pb_divider color=”#ffffff” show_divider=”on” height=”140″ divider_style=”solid” divider_position=”top” divider_weight=”1px” hide_on_mobile=”on” admin_label=”Divider” disabled=”off”]
[/et_pb_divider][et_pb_text background_layout=”light” text_orientation=”left” admin_label=”Title” use_border_color=”off” border_style=”solid” disabled=”off”]

Punctuation

Simple Rules for How To Punctuate Effectively

[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column_inner][/et_pb_row_inner][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_section][et_pb_section transparent_background=”off” allow_player_pause=”off” inner_shadow=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on” make_fullwidth=”off” use_custom_width=”off” width_unit=”off” custom_width_px=”1080px” custom_width_percent=”80%” make_equal=”off” use_custom_gutter=”off” fullwidth=”off” specialty=”off” admin_label=”section” disabled=”off”][et_pb_row make_fullwidth=”off” use_custom_width=”off” width_unit=”off” custom_width_px=”1080px” custom_width_percent=”80%” use_custom_gutter=”off” gutter_width=”3″ allow_player_pause=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on” make_equal=”off” parallax_1=”off” parallax_method_1=”on” parallax_2=”off” parallax_method_2=”on” parallax_3=”off” parallax_method_3=”on” parallax_4=”off” parallax_method_4=”on” admin_label=”row” disabled=”off”][et_pb_column type=”4_4″ disabled=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on”][et_pb_text background_layout=”light” text_orientation=”left” admin_label=”Punctuation Essay” use_border_color=”off” border_style=”solid” disabled=”off”]

 

Punctuation

Evolution, Devolution, & Competing Paradigms

     Headshot     Change tends to happen for a reason, and so it is with the rules of punctuation (if they should even be called rules). Even more true is that change will always be resisted by those who have mastered whatever is going to be changed. And so it is with punctuation, and so the tension between less or more punctuation was set in motion, and it has ebbed and flowed for the past several hundred years. Right now I think we are on a bit of a more stage of the punctuation tide. The internet, email, messaging, emoticons, template-based writing and the overall effect of redefining how words are created, manipulated, and stored seems to be creating several new (and often competing) visions of what proper punctuation looks like and needs or wants to do in any kind of writing piece.

My default thought whenever I “read” a punctuation mark is to to ask, “What exactly is this mark doing for me? Do I really need it? For example: do I need to have a comma between a town, state, and zip-code when it is already obvious what is being written: Concord, MA, 01742 or Concord MA 01742.  [But of course, if I need to write New York, New York, 10458 the commas appear helpful—unless, maybe, we all started using abbreviations instead of the complete state name whenever writing a state name. Being from Massachusetts this is a no brainer: just write MA. Very few people will confuse my home state with my mother, and it will certainly help anyone who wants to write New York NY instead of New York New York, which will drive your spell checker crazy.

If you are confused already, my point is made. Whether you care to read on is a good indication of your commitment as a writer:) [Sorry for the emoticon. I just wanted you to know that I am kidding, sort of. And these brackets are supposed to let you know that this little aside doesn’t have a lot to do with the main writing piece, but it felt like useful information.] My kidding aside, knowing where, how, why, and when to use punctuation is a pretty useful part of any writer’s toolbox.

At its best, effective punctuation allows a writer to recreate the needed tone and intention of a writer’s inner voice during its transformation, through words, into an outer voice—and at its very best both writer and reader have a shared understanding of the purpose and intent of every additional mark put upon the page. At worst, a challenged reader just ignores your skillfully placed commas, parentheses and semi-colons (or your teacher is peeved that your enlightened understanding of punctuation is at odds with his or her understanding of punctuation and you receive a horrible grade for an incredible effort). Emerson once said that “consistency is the hobgoblin of narrow minds,” but I don’t think he meant that in regard to punctuation where consistency is the king, queen and beloved hero of clear, concise and compelling writing.

To that end, learn punctuation; moreover, learn to love what it can do for your writing—and, yes once again, when you know the rules, you can break them.

~Fitz

 

[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][/et_pb_section][et_pb_section transparent_background=”off” allow_player_pause=”off” inner_shadow=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on” make_fullwidth=”off” use_custom_width=”off” width_unit=”off” custom_width_px=”1080px” custom_width_percent=”80%” make_equal=”off” use_custom_gutter=”off” fullwidth=”on” specialty=”off” admin_label=”section” disabled=”off”][et_pb_fullwidth_image src=”http://www.thecraftedword.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/Comma-Rules-Logo.jpg” show_in_lightbox=”off” url_new_window=”off” use_overlay=”off” animation=”left” admin_label=”Fullwidth Image” use_border_color=”off” border_color=”#ffffff” border_width=”1px” border_style=”solid” disabled=”off”] [/et_pb_fullwidth_image][/et_pb_section][et_pb_section transparent_background=”off” allow_player_pause=”off” inner_shadow=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on” make_fullwidth=”off” use_custom_width=”off” width_unit=”off” custom_width_px=”1080px” custom_width_percent=”80%” make_equal=”off” use_custom_gutter=”off” fullwidth=”off” specialty=”off” admin_label=”Section” disabled=”off”][et_pb_row make_fullwidth=”off” use_custom_width=”off” width_unit=”off” custom_width_px=”1080px” custom_width_percent=”80%” use_custom_gutter=”off” gutter_width=”3″ allow_player_pause=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on” make_equal=”off” parallax_1=”off” parallax_method_1=”on” parallax_2=”off” parallax_method_2=”on” parallax_3=”off” parallax_method_3=”on” parallax_4=”off” parallax_method_4=”on” admin_label=”Row” disabled=”off”][et_pb_column type=”1_3″ disabled=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on”][et_pb_image src=”http://www.thecraftedword.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/Crafted-Big-Logo.gif” show_in_lightbox=”off” url_new_window=”off” use_overlay=”off” sticky=”off” align=”left” force_fullwidth=”off” always_center_on_mobile=”on” admin_label=”Image” use_border_color=”off” border_color=”#ffffff” border_width=”1px” border_style=”solid” disabled=”off”][/et_pb_image][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”2_3″ disabled=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on”][et_pb_text background_layout=”light” text_orientation=”left” admin_label=”Text” use_border_color=”off” border_style=”solid” disabled=”off”]

        Becoming better at something is not rocket science. It is, as Thomas Edison said, “…90% perspiration and 10% inspiration. In other words, reaching a new level in any skill or endeavor requires old-fashioned work. In writing, this means that you need to learn some of the basic skills of punctuation so that the depth and power of your words are delivered to your readers as effectively as possible.

Luckily, most people are able to read through errors in punctuation without becoming completely confused. It is ultimately up to you to figure how to effectively use punctuation effectively and efficiently to create the rhythm, flow, and power of well-crafted words, but knowing these ten rules should help you significantly.

[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][/et_pb_section][et_pb_section transparent_background=”off” allow_player_pause=”off” inner_shadow=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on” make_fullwidth=”off” use_custom_width=”off” width_unit=”off” custom_width_px=”1080px” custom_width_percent=”80%” make_equal=”off” use_custom_gutter=”off” fullwidth=”on” specialty=”off” admin_label=”Section” disabled=”off”][et_pb_fullwidth_slider show_arrows=”off” show_pagination=”off” auto=”off” auto_speed=”7000″ auto_ignore_hover=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”off” remove_inner_shadow=”off” background_position=”default” background_size=”default” hide_content_on_mobile=”off” hide_cta_on_mobile=”off” show_image_video_mobile=”off” admin_label=”#1 Slider” custom_button=”off” button_text_size=”20″ button_letter_spacing=”0″ button_use_icon=”default” button_icon_placement=”right” button_on_hover=”on” button_letter_spacing_hover=”0″ disabled=”off”][et_pb_slide button_link=”#” background_image=”http://www.thecraftedword.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/parchment-paper-with-flowers.jpg” background_position=”default” background_size=”default” background_color=”#ffffff” use_bg_overlay=”off” use_text_overlay=”off” alignment=”center” background_layout=”light” allow_player_pause=”off” text_border_radius=”3″ header_font=”||||” body_font=”||||” custom_button=”off” button_font=”||||” button_use_icon=”default” button_icon_placement=”right” button_on_hover=”on” disabled=”off”]

Comma Rule #1

 

Comma’s to separate elements in a series…

 

It is so refreshing to know how to use commas, quotes, semi-colons and colons with confidence!

[/et_pb_slide][/et_pb_fullwidth_slider][/et_pb_section][et_pb_section transparent_background=”off” allow_player_pause=”off” inner_shadow=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on” make_fullwidth=”off” use_custom_width=”off” width_unit=”off” custom_width_px=”1080px” custom_width_percent=”80%” make_equal=”off” use_custom_gutter=”off” fullwidth=”off” specialty=”off” admin_label=”section” disabled=”off”][et_pb_row make_fullwidth=”off” use_custom_width=”off” width_unit=”off” custom_width_px=”1080px” custom_width_percent=”80%” use_custom_gutter=”off” gutter_width=”3″ allow_player_pause=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on” make_equal=”off” parallax_1=”off” parallax_method_1=”on” parallax_2=”off” parallax_method_2=”on” parallax_3=”off” parallax_method_3=”on” parallax_4=”off” parallax_method_4=”on” admin_label=”row” disabled=”off”][et_pb_column type=”1_3″ disabled=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on”][et_pb_text background_layout=”light” text_orientation=”left” admin_label=”#1 Commas in a series” use_border_color=”off” border_style=”solid” disabled=”off”]

Things to know…

 

[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”2_3″ disabled=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on”][et_pb_audio audio=”http://www.thecraftedword.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/Comma-Rule-1.m4a” title=”Rule #1: Commas in a Series” artist_name=”John Fitzsimmons” album_name=”Fitz’s Top Ten Comma Rules” image_url=”http://www.thecraftedword.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/image1.jpg” background_color=”#ffffff” background_layout=”light” admin_label=”Rule #1″ use_border_color=”off” border_color=”#ffffff” border_width=”1px” border_style=”solid” disabled=”off”]
[/et_pb_audio][et_pb_text background_layout=”light” text_orientation=”left” admin_label=”#1 A Series of Elements” use_border_color=”off” border_style=”solid” disabled=”off”]

Rule #1: Commas are used to separate three or more words or phrase in a list or series.  

*Commas can separate clauses, but only if the comma precedes a coordinating conjunction.

 

*If you connect two clauses with a comma, you create the dreaded “comma splice,” which is in my top ten writing mistakes of all time.

 

 

 

 

 

You may omit the last comma [which is called the Oxford Comma] if there will be no confusion in meaning 

I tend to use the Oxford Comma more often than not because why risk confusing the reader?

If there are only two elements, no comma is needed between the elements. 

If you are introducing a list with a noun, use a colon to introduce the list.

 

If you introduce the list with a verb use a comma after the first item in the list:

 

 

 

[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][/et_pb_section][et_pb_section transparent_background=”off” allow_player_pause=”off” inner_shadow=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on” make_fullwidth=”off” use_custom_width=”off” width_unit=”off” custom_width_px=”1080px” custom_width_percent=”80%” make_equal=”off” use_custom_gutter=”off” fullwidth=”on” specialty=”off” admin_label=”section” disabled=”off”][et_pb_fullwidth_slider show_arrows=”off” show_pagination=”off” auto=”off” auto_speed=”7000″ auto_ignore_hover=”off” parallax=”on” parallax_method=”off” remove_inner_shadow=”off” background_position=”default” background_size=”default” hide_content_on_mobile=”off” hide_cta_on_mobile=”off” show_image_video_mobile=”off” admin_label=”Conjunctions” custom_button=”off” button_text_size=”20″ button_border_width=”2″ button_border_radius=”3″ button_letter_spacing=”0″ button_use_icon=”default” button_icon_placement=”right” button_on_hover=”on” button_border_radius_hover=”3″ button_letter_spacing_hover=”0″ disabled=”off”][et_pb_slide button_link=”#” background_image=”http://www.thecraftedword.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/parchment-paper-with-flowers.jpg” background_position=”default” background_size=”default” background_color=”#ffffff” alignment=”center” background_layout=”light” allow_player_pause=”off” text_border_radius=”3″ custom_button=”off” button_use_icon=”default” button_icon_placement=”right” button_on_hover=”on” disabled=”off”]

Comma Rule #2

Commas with Coordinating Conjunctions

I can’t believe I am on this website, but it might help me someday when I really need it.

[/et_pb_slide][/et_pb_fullwidth_slider][/et_pb_section][et_pb_section transparent_background=”off” allow_player_pause=”off” inner_shadow=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on” make_fullwidth=”off” use_custom_width=”off” width_unit=”off” custom_width_px=”1080px” custom_width_percent=”80%” make_equal=”off” use_custom_gutter=”off” fullwidth=”off” specialty=”off” admin_label=”section” disabled=”off”][et_pb_row make_fullwidth=”off” use_custom_width=”off” width_unit=”off” custom_width_px=”1080px” custom_width_percent=”80%” use_custom_gutter=”off” gutter_width=”3″ allow_player_pause=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on” make_equal=”off” parallax_1=”off” parallax_method_1=”on” parallax_2=”off” parallax_method_2=”on” parallax_3=”off” parallax_method_3=”on” parallax_4=”off” parallax_method_4=”on” admin_label=”row” disabled=”off”][et_pb_column type=”1_3″ disabled=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on”][et_pb_text background_layout=”light” text_orientation=”left” admin_label=”Things to know #2″ use_border_color=”off” border_style=”solid” disabled=”off”]

Things to know…

 

 

[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”2_3″ disabled=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on”][et_pb_text background_layout=”light” text_orientation=”left” admin_label=”#2 Commas with Coordinating Conjunctions” use_border_color=”off” border_style=”solid” disabled=”off”]

Commas with conjunctions must have an independent clause (meaning, the clause can stand alone as a sentence) BEFORE and AFTER the conjunction and comma. 

A comma and a conjunction can always be replaced with a period or semi-colon instead of the comma and conjunction. 

Soyet Andor Norforbut only work as conjunctions if they are connecting two or more independent clauses together to create a compound sentence; otherwise, they are being used in different ways.

If the sentence is brief, say eight words or less, it is perfectly fine to leave out the comma as there 

[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][/et_pb_section][et_pb_section transparent_background=”off” allow_player_pause=”off” inner_shadow=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on” make_fullwidth=”off” use_custom_width=”off” width_unit=”off” custom_width_px=”1080px” custom_width_percent=”80%” make_equal=”off” use_custom_gutter=”off” fullwidth=”on” specialty=”off” admin_label=”section” disabled=”off”][et_pb_fullwidth_slider show_arrows=”off” show_pagination=”off” auto=”off” auto_speed=”7000″ auto_ignore_hover=”off” parallax=”on” parallax_method=”off” remove_inner_shadow=”off” background_position=”default” background_size=”default” hide_content_on_mobile=”off” hide_cta_on_mobile=”off” show_image_video_mobile=”off” admin_label=”Introductory elements” custom_button=”off” button_text_size=”20″ button_border_width=”2″ button_border_radius=”3″ button_letter_spacing=”0″ button_use_icon=”default” button_icon_placement=”right” button_on_hover=”on” button_border_radius_hover=”3″ button_letter_spacing_hover=”0″ disabled=”off”][et_pb_slide button_link=”#” background_image=”http://www.thecraftedword.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/parchment-paper-with-flowers.jpg” background_position=”default” background_size=”default” background_color=”#ffffff” alignment=”center” background_layout=”light” allow_player_pause=”off” text_border_radius=”3″ custom_button=”off” button_use_icon=”default” button_icon_placement=”right” button_on_hover=”on” disabled=”off”]

Comma Rule #3

Commas with Introductory Elements

[/et_pb_slide][/et_pb_fullwidth_slider][/et_pb_section][et_pb_section transparent_background=”off” allow_player_pause=”off” inner_shadow=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on” make_fullwidth=”off” use_custom_width=”off” width_unit=”off” custom_width_px=”1080px” custom_width_percent=”80%” make_equal=”off” use_custom_gutter=”off” fullwidth=”off” specialty=”off” admin_label=”section” disabled=”off”][et_pb_row make_fullwidth=”off” use_custom_width=”off” width_unit=”off” custom_width_px=”1080px” custom_width_percent=”80%” use_custom_gutter=”off” gutter_width=”3″ allow_player_pause=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on” make_equal=”off” parallax_1=”off” parallax_method_1=”on” parallax_2=”off” parallax_method_2=”on” parallax_3=”off” parallax_method_3=”on” parallax_4=”off” parallax_method_4=”on” admin_label=”row” disabled=”off”][et_pb_column type=”1_3″ disabled=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on”][et_pb_text background_layout=”light” text_orientation=”left” admin_label=”Text” use_border_color=”off” border_style=”solid” disabled=”off”]

Things to know…

[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”2_3″ disabled=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on”][et_pb_text background_layout=”light” text_orientation=”left” admin_label=”Rule #3: Introductory Elements” use_border_color=”off” border_style=”solid” disabled=”off”]

An introductory element is any word, phrase or dependent clause that comes before the main independent clause of the sentence.

[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][/et_pb_section][et_pb_section transparent_background=”off” allow_player_pause=”off” inner_shadow=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on” make_fullwidth=”off” use_custom_width=”off” width_unit=”off” custom_width_px=”1080px” custom_width_percent=”80%” make_equal=”off” use_custom_gutter=”off” fullwidth=”on” specialty=”off” admin_label=”Section” disabled=”off”][et_pb_fullwidth_slider show_arrows=”off” show_pagination=”off” auto=”off” auto_speed=”7000″ auto_ignore_hover=”off” parallax=”on” parallax_method=”off” remove_inner_shadow=”off” background_position=”default” background_size=”default” hide_content_on_mobile=”off” hide_cta_on_mobile=”off” show_image_video_mobile=”off” admin_label=”Rule #4 Parenthetical elements” custom_button=”off” button_text_size=”20″ button_border_width=”2″ button_border_radius=”3″ button_letter_spacing=”0″ button_use_icon=”default” button_icon_placement=”right” button_on_hover=”on” button_border_radius_hover=”3″ button_letter_spacing_hover=”0″ disabled=”off”][et_pb_slide button_link=”#” background_image=”http://www.thecraftedword.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/parchment-paper-with-flowers.jpg” background_position=”default” background_size=”default” background_color=”#ffffff” alignment=”center” background_layout=”light” allow_player_pause=”off” text_border_radius=”3″ custom_button=”off” button_use_icon=”default” button_icon_placement=”right” button_on_hover=”on” disabled=”off”]

Comma Rule #4

Commas with Parenthetical Elements

Studying comma usage, dull as it my be, is actually quite helpful.

[/et_pb_slide][/et_pb_fullwidth_slider][/et_pb_section][et_pb_section transparent_background=”off” allow_player_pause=”off” inner_shadow=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on” make_fullwidth=”off” use_custom_width=”off” width_unit=”off” custom_width_px=”1080px” custom_width_percent=”80%” make_equal=”off” use_custom_gutter=”off” fullwidth=”off” specialty=”off” admin_label=”section” disabled=”off”][et_pb_row make_fullwidth=”off” use_custom_width=”off” width_unit=”off” custom_width_px=”1080px” custom_width_percent=”80%” use_custom_gutter=”off” gutter_width=”3″ allow_player_pause=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on” make_equal=”off” parallax_1=”off” parallax_method_1=”on” parallax_2=”off” parallax_method_2=”on” parallax_3=”off” parallax_method_3=”on” parallax_4=”off” parallax_method_4=”on” admin_label=”row” disabled=”off”][et_pb_column type=”1_3″ disabled=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on”][et_pb_text background_layout=”light” text_orientation=”left” admin_label=”Text” use_border_color=”off” border_style=”solid” disabled=”off”]

Things to know…

[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”2_3″ disabled=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on”][et_pb_text background_layout=”light” text_orientation=”left” admin_label=”Parenthetical” use_border_color=”off” border_style=”solid” disabled=”off”]

Parenthetical elements are words and phrases that add detail to a sentence, but which are not “essential” to an understanding of the sentence. 

A parenthetical element is a non-essential element, meaning it “could” be enclosed in parentheses and left in the sentence, or it could be removed from the sentence.

 

 

[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][/et_pb_section][et_pb_section transparent_background=”off” allow_player_pause=”off” inner_shadow=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on” make_fullwidth=”off” use_custom_width=”off” width_unit=”off” custom_width_px=”1080px” custom_width_percent=”80%” make_equal=”off” use_custom_gutter=”off” fullwidth=”on” specialty=”off” admin_label=”Section” disabled=”off”][et_pb_fullwidth_slider show_arrows=”off” show_pagination=”off” auto=”off” auto_speed=”7000″ auto_ignore_hover=”off” parallax=”on” parallax_method=”off” remove_inner_shadow=”off” background_position=”default” background_size=”default” hide_content_on_mobile=”off” hide_cta_on_mobile=”off” show_image_video_mobile=”off” admin_label=”Rule #5 adjectives” custom_button=”off” button_text_size=”20″ button_border_width=”2″ button_border_radius=”3″ button_letter_spacing=”0″ button_use_icon=”default” button_icon_placement=”right” button_on_hover=”on” button_border_radius_hover=”3″ button_letter_spacing_hover=”0″ disabled=”off”][et_pb_slide button_link=”#” background_image=”http://www.thecraftedword.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/parchment-paper-with-flowers.jpg” background_position=”default” background_size=”default” background_color=”#ffffff” alignment=”center” background_layout=”light” allow_player_pause=”off” admin_title=”#5 Adjectives” text_border_radius=”3″ custom_button=”off” button_use_icon=”default” button_icon_placement=”right” button_on_hover=”on” disabled=”off”]

Comma Rule #5

Commas with Descriptive Adjectives

Studying punctuation is a satisfying, educational, superbly awesome way to spend the day.

[/et_pb_slide][/et_pb_fullwidth_slider][/et_pb_section][et_pb_section transparent_background=”off” allow_player_pause=”off” inner_shadow=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on” make_fullwidth=”off” use_custom_width=”off” width_unit=”off” custom_width_px=”1080px” custom_width_percent=”80%” make_equal=”off” use_custom_gutter=”off” fullwidth=”off” specialty=”off” admin_label=”section” disabled=”off”][et_pb_row make_fullwidth=”off” use_custom_width=”off” width_unit=”off” custom_width_px=”1080px” custom_width_percent=”80%” use_custom_gutter=”off” gutter_width=”3″ allow_player_pause=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on” make_equal=”off” parallax_1=”off” parallax_method_1=”on” parallax_2=”off” parallax_method_2=”on” parallax_3=”off” parallax_method_3=”on” parallax_4=”off” parallax_method_4=”on” admin_label=”row” disabled=”off”][et_pb_column type=”1_3″ disabled=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on”][et_pb_text background_layout=”light” text_orientation=”left” admin_label=”Descrptive” use_border_color=”off” border_style=”solid” disabled=”off”]

Things to know…

[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”2_3″ disabled=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on”][et_pb_text background_layout=”light” text_orientation=”left” admin_label=”Descriptive” use_border_color=”off” border_style=”solid” disabled=”off”]

Descriptive adjectives are used to help add detail to nouns or a noun phrase. It can be a single adjective which does not require a comma:

In a series of adjectives, there should be a comma between every adjective except the last one in the series.

If you can naturally (meaning, without it sounding weird) put an “and,” “or,” or  “but” between the adjectives, a comma will probably belong there.

 

 

[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][/et_pb_section][et_pb_section transparent_background=”off” allow_player_pause=”off” inner_shadow=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on” make_fullwidth=”off” use_custom_width=”off” width_unit=”off” custom_width_px=”1080px” custom_width_percent=”80%” make_equal=”off” use_custom_gutter=”off” fullwidth=”on” specialty=”off” admin_label=”Section” disabled=”off”][et_pb_fullwidth_slider show_arrows=”off” show_pagination=”off” auto=”off” auto_speed=”7000″ auto_ignore_hover=”off” parallax=”on” parallax_method=”off” remove_inner_shadow=”off” background_position=”default” background_size=”default” hide_content_on_mobile=”off” hide_cta_on_mobile=”off” show_image_video_mobile=”off” admin_label=”Rule #6 Conjunctive adverbs” custom_button=”off” button_text_size=”20″ button_border_width=”2″ button_border_radius=”3″ button_letter_spacing=”0″ button_use_icon=”default” button_icon_placement=”right” button_on_hover=”on” button_border_radius_hover=”3″ button_letter_spacing_hover=”0″ disabled=”off”][et_pb_slide button_link=”#” background_image=”http://www.thecraftedword.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/parchment-paper-with-flowers.jpg” background_position=”default” background_size=”default” background_color=”#ffffff” alignment=”center” background_layout=”light” allow_player_pause=”off” admin_title=”#5 adverbs” text_border_radius=”3″ custom_button=”off” button_use_icon=”default” button_icon_placement=”right” button_on_hover=”on” disabled=”off”]

Comma Rule #6

Commas with Conjunctive Adverbs

Studying punctuation is a satisfying, educational, superbly awesome way to spend the day; however, there might be a better way to spend the day..

[/et_pb_slide][/et_pb_fullwidth_slider][/et_pb_section][et_pb_section transparent_background=”off” allow_player_pause=”off” inner_shadow=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on” make_fullwidth=”off” use_custom_width=”off” width_unit=”off” custom_width_px=”1080px” custom_width_percent=”80%” make_equal=”off” use_custom_gutter=”off” fullwidth=”off” specialty=”off” admin_label=”section” disabled=”off”][et_pb_row make_fullwidth=”off” use_custom_width=”off” width_unit=”off” custom_width_px=”1080px” custom_width_percent=”80%” use_custom_gutter=”off” gutter_width=”3″ allow_player_pause=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on” make_equal=”off” parallax_1=”off” parallax_method_1=”on” parallax_2=”off” parallax_method_2=”on” parallax_3=”off” parallax_method_3=”on” parallax_4=”off” parallax_method_4=”on” admin_label=”row” disabled=”off”][et_pb_column type=”1_3″ disabled=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on”][et_pb_text background_layout=”light” text_orientation=”left” admin_label=”#6 Things adverbs” use_border_color=”off” border_style=”solid” disabled=”off”]

Things to know…

 

[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”2_3″ disabled=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on”][et_pb_text background_layout=”light” text_orientation=”left” admin_label=”Text” use_border_color=”off” border_style=”solid” disabled=”off”]

What is a Conjunctive Adverb?

Whenever you use a conjunctive adverb in a sentence, you should put a semi-colon before the conjunctive adverb and a comma after the conjunctive adverb. Just be sure there is an independent clause before the conjunctive adverb AND after!

A conjunctive adverb can also be a part of an adverbial phrase:

Warning: Use conjunctive adverbs sparingly. If you use them too often in a writing piece, your writing might sound “a bit” pretentious. Here are some examples of conjunctive adverbs: also, anyhow, anyway, as a result, at last, at the same time, besides, certainly, consequently, earlier, eventually, finally, for example, for instance, further, furthermore, hence, however, in addition, in any case, incidentally, indeed, in fact, in short, instead, in the meantime, later, likewise, meanwhile, moreover, namely, nevertheless, next, now, on the contrary, on the other hand, otherwise, perhaps, similarly, so (as in soooo…) still, subsequently, that is, then, therefore…

In these cases, do not use a semi-colon and comma. If the conjunctive adverb acts as the introductory word, put a comma after it. 

If it is within a clause, treat it as you would a non-essential element (which in a way it is!) and put a comma before and after the conjunctive adverb.

Conjunctive adverbs can be used to extend a thought and connect multiple independent clauses into a single cohesive sentence. Here’s an example of how to make a way cool impressive sentence:

 

[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][/et_pb_section][et_pb_section transparent_background=”off” allow_player_pause=”off” inner_shadow=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on” make_fullwidth=”off” use_custom_width=”off” width_unit=”off” custom_width_px=”1080px” custom_width_percent=”80%” make_equal=”off” use_custom_gutter=”off” fullwidth=”on” specialty=”off” admin_label=”Section” disabled=”off”][et_pb_fullwidth_slider show_arrows=”off” show_pagination=”off” auto=”off” auto_speed=”7000″ auto_ignore_hover=”off” parallax=”on” parallax_method=”off” remove_inner_shadow=”off” background_position=”default” background_size=”default” hide_content_on_mobile=”off” hide_cta_on_mobile=”off” show_image_video_mobile=”off” admin_label=”Rule #7 Contrast” custom_button=”off” button_text_size=”20″ button_border_width=”2″ button_border_radius=”3″ button_letter_spacing=”0″ button_use_icon=”default” button_icon_placement=”right” button_on_hover=”on” button_border_radius_hover=”3″ button_letter_spacing_hover=”0″ disabled=”off”][et_pb_slide button_link=”#” background_image=”http://www.thecraftedword.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/parchment-paper-with-flowers.jpg” background_position=”default” background_size=”default” background_color=”#ffffff” alignment=”center” background_layout=”light” allow_player_pause=”off” admin_title=”#7 Contrast” text_border_radius=”3″ custom_button=”off” button_use_icon=”default” button_icon_placement=”right” button_on_hover=”on” disabled=”off”]

Comma Rule #7

Commas to Express Contrast

This comma stuff is fun, but hard.

[/et_pb_slide][/et_pb_fullwidth_slider][/et_pb_section][et_pb_section transparent_background=”off” allow_player_pause=”off” inner_shadow=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on” make_fullwidth=”off” use_custom_width=”off” width_unit=”off” custom_width_px=”1080px” custom_width_percent=”80%” make_equal=”off” use_custom_gutter=”off” fullwidth=”off” specialty=”off” admin_label=”section” disabled=”off”][et_pb_row make_fullwidth=”off” use_custom_width=”off” width_unit=”off” custom_width_px=”1080px” custom_width_percent=”80%” use_custom_gutter=”off” gutter_width=”3″ allow_player_pause=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on” make_equal=”off” parallax_1=”off” parallax_method_1=”on” parallax_2=”off” parallax_method_2=”on” parallax_3=”off” parallax_method_3=”on” parallax_4=”off” parallax_method_4=”on” admin_label=”row” disabled=”off”][et_pb_column type=”1_3″ disabled=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on”][et_pb_text background_layout=”light” text_orientation=”left” admin_label=”Things #7″ use_border_color=”off” border_style=”solid” disabled=”off”]

Things to know…

[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”2_3″ disabled=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on”][et_pb_text background_layout=”light” text_orientation=”left” admin_label=”#7 Contrast” use_border_color=”off” border_style=”solid” disabled=”off”]

Using commas to express a contrast is important when comparing the differences between two things and you want to emphasize the contrast. 

Sometimes the contrasting element is embedded within a longer sentence:

You don’t need a comma if you are not trying to emphasize the contrast.

e.g. Don’t worry, be happy. e.g. Don’t worry; be happy. e.g. Don’t worry— be happy! e.g. Don’t worry. Be happy.

 

 

[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][/et_pb_section][et_pb_section transparent_background=”off” allow_player_pause=”off” inner_shadow=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on” make_fullwidth=”off” use_custom_width=”off” width_unit=”off” custom_width_px=”1080px” custom_width_percent=”80%” make_equal=”off” use_custom_gutter=”off” fullwidth=”on” specialty=”off” admin_label=”Section” disabled=”off”][et_pb_fullwidth_slider show_arrows=”off” show_pagination=”off” auto=”off” auto_speed=”7000″ auto_ignore_hover=”off” parallax=”on” parallax_method=”off” remove_inner_shadow=”off” background_position=”default” background_size=”default” hide_content_on_mobile=”off” hide_cta_on_mobile=”off” show_image_video_mobile=”off” admin_label=”Rule #8 Quotes” custom_button=”off” button_text_size=”20″ button_border_width=”2″ button_border_radius=”3″ button_letter_spacing=”0″ button_use_icon=”default” button_icon_placement=”right” button_on_hover=”on” button_border_radius_hover=”3″ button_letter_spacing_hover=”0″ disabled=”off”][et_pb_slide button_link=”#” background_image=”http://www.thecraftedword.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/parchment-paper-with-flowers.jpg” background_position=”default” background_size=”default” background_color=”#ffffff” alignment=”center” background_layout=”light” allow_player_pause=”off” admin_title=”#8 quotes” text_border_radius=”3″ custom_button=”off” button_use_icon=”default” button_icon_placement=”right” button_on_hover=”on” disabled=”off”]

Comma Rule #8

Commas with Quotes

Fitz said, “Comma Rules are needed, but in the words of Ms. Libby: “Who cares about the numbers!”.

[/et_pb_slide][/et_pb_fullwidth_slider][/et_pb_section][et_pb_section transparent_background=”off” allow_player_pause=”off” inner_shadow=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on” make_fullwidth=”off” use_custom_width=”off” width_unit=”off” custom_width_px=”1080px” custom_width_percent=”80%” make_equal=”off” use_custom_gutter=”off” fullwidth=”off” specialty=”off” admin_label=”section” disabled=”off”][et_pb_row make_fullwidth=”off” use_custom_width=”off” width_unit=”off” custom_width_px=”1080px” custom_width_percent=”80%” use_custom_gutter=”off” gutter_width=”3″ allow_player_pause=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on” make_equal=”off” parallax_1=”off” parallax_method_1=”on” parallax_2=”off” parallax_method_2=”on” parallax_3=”off” parallax_method_3=”on” parallax_4=”off” parallax_method_4=”on” admin_label=”row” disabled=”off”][et_pb_column type=”1_3″ disabled=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on”][et_pb_text background_layout=”light” text_orientation=”left” admin_label=”#8 Things Quotes” use_border_color=”off” border_style=”solid” disabled=”off”]

  Things To know…

 

[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”2_3″ disabled=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on”][et_pb_text background_layout=”light” text_orientation=”left” admin_label=”Text” use_border_color=”off” border_style=”solid” disabled=”off”]

 If you are leading into a quote with a verb, put a comma after the verb and then insert your quote.

It is important to remember that you can also use a colon to set off a quote. Use a colon when the quote is introduced by a noun.

If a quote is four or more lines long, separate the quote as a paragraph [called a block quote]  introduced with a colon, whether the preceding word is a verb or not.  In his book Walden, Thoreau wrote: A single footstep will not make a path on the earth, so a single thought will not make a pathway in the mind. To make a deep physical path, we walk again and again. To make a deep mental path, we must think over and over the kind of thoughts we wish to dominate our lives.

 

 

[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][/et_pb_section][et_pb_section transparent_background=”off” allow_player_pause=”off” inner_shadow=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”off” padding_mobile=”off” make_fullwidth=”off” use_custom_width=”off” width_unit=”on” custom_width_px=”1080px” custom_width_percent=”80%” make_equal=”off” use_custom_gutter=”off” gutter_width=”3″ fullwidth=”on” specialty=”off” admin_label=”Section” disabled=”off”][et_pb_fullwidth_slider show_arrows=”off” show_pagination=”off” auto=”off” auto_speed=”7000″ auto_ignore_hover=”off” parallax=”on” parallax_method=”off” remove_inner_shadow=”off” background_position=”default” background_size=”default” hide_content_on_mobile=”off” hide_cta_on_mobile=”off” show_image_video_mobile=”off” admin_label=”Rule #9 Places” custom_button=”off” button_text_size=”20″ button_border_width=”2″ button_border_radius=”3″ button_letter_spacing=”0″ button_use_icon=”default” button_icon_placement=”right” button_on_hover=”on” button_border_radius_hover=”3″ button_letter_spacing_hover=”0″ disabled=”off”][et_pb_slide button_link=”#” background_image=”http://www.thecraftedword.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/parchment-paper-with-flowers.jpg” background_position=”default” background_size=”default” background_color=”#ffffff” alignment=”center” background_layout=”light” allow_player_pause=”off” admin_title=”#9 Places” text_border_radius=”3″ custom_button=”off” button_use_icon=”default” button_icon_placement=”right” button_on_hover=”on” disabled=”off”]

Comma Rule #9

Commas with Places, Times and Dates

You had better practice these rules at The Fenn School, in Concord, MA, at 3:00 on Friday, January 8, 2016!

[/et_pb_slide][/et_pb_fullwidth_slider][/et_pb_section][et_pb_section transparent_background=”off” allow_player_pause=”off” inner_shadow=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on” make_fullwidth=”off” use_custom_width=”off” width_unit=”off” custom_width_px=”1080px” custom_width_percent=”80%” make_equal=”off” use_custom_gutter=”off” fullwidth=”off” specialty=”off” admin_label=”section” disabled=”off”][et_pb_row make_fullwidth=”off” use_custom_width=”off” width_unit=”off” custom_width_px=”1080px” custom_width_percent=”80%” use_custom_gutter=”off” gutter_width=”3″ allow_player_pause=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on” make_equal=”off” parallax_1=”off” parallax_method_1=”on” parallax_2=”off” parallax_method_2=”on” parallax_3=”off” parallax_method_3=”on” parallax_4=”off” parallax_method_4=”on” admin_label=”row” disabled=”off”][et_pb_column type=”1_3″ disabled=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on”][et_pb_text background_layout=”light” text_orientation=”left” admin_label=”#9 Things Places” use_border_color=”off” border_style=”solid” disabled=”off”]

Things to know…

[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”2_3″ disabled=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on”][et_pb_text background_layout=”light” text_orientation=”left” admin_label=”Text” use_border_color=”off” border_style=”solid” disabled=”off”]

 

[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][/et_pb_section][et_pb_section transparent_background=”off” allow_player_pause=”off” inner_shadow=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”off” padding_mobile=”off” make_fullwidth=”off” use_custom_width=”off” width_unit=”on” custom_width_px=”1080px” custom_width_percent=”80%” make_equal=”off” use_custom_gutter=”off” gutter_width=”3″ fullwidth=”on” specialty=”off” admin_label=”Section” disabled=”off”][et_pb_fullwidth_slider show_arrows=”off” show_pagination=”off” auto=”off” auto_speed=”7000″ auto_ignore_hover=”off” parallax=”on” parallax_method=”off” remove_inner_shadow=”off” background_position=”default” background_size=”default” hide_content_on_mobile=”off” hide_cta_on_mobile=”off” show_image_video_mobile=”off” admin_label=”Rule #10 Tags” custom_button=”off” button_text_size=”20″ button_border_width=”2″ button_border_radius=”3″ button_letter_spacing=”0″ button_use_icon=”default” button_icon_placement=”right” button_on_hover=”on” button_border_radius_hover=”3″ button_letter_spacing_hover=”0″ disabled=”off”][et_pb_slide button_link=”#” background_image=”http://www.thecraftedword.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/parchment-paper-with-flowers.jpg” background_position=”default” background_size=”default” background_color=”#ffffff” alignment=”center” background_layout=”light” allow_player_pause=”off” admin_title=”#9 Places” text_border_radius=”3″ custom_button=”off” button_use_icon=”default” button_icon_placement=”right” button_on_hover=”on” disabled=”off”]

Comma Rule #10

Commas with Tag Elements

This so simple, Fred!

[/et_pb_slide][/et_pb_fullwidth_slider][/et_pb_section][et_pb_section transparent_background=”off” allow_player_pause=”off” inner_shadow=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on” make_fullwidth=”off” use_custom_width=”off” width_unit=”off” custom_width_px=”1080px” custom_width_percent=”80%” make_equal=”off” use_custom_gutter=”off” fullwidth=”off” specialty=”off” admin_label=”section” disabled=”off”][et_pb_row make_fullwidth=”off” use_custom_width=”off” width_unit=”off” custom_width_px=”1080px” custom_width_percent=”80%” use_custom_gutter=”off” gutter_width=”3″ allow_player_pause=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on” make_equal=”off” parallax_1=”off” parallax_method_1=”on” parallax_2=”off” parallax_method_2=”on” parallax_3=”off” parallax_method_3=”on” parallax_4=”off” parallax_method_4=”on” admin_label=”row” disabled=”off”][et_pb_column type=”1_3″ disabled=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on”][et_pb_text background_layout=”light” text_orientation=”left” admin_label=”#10 Tags” use_border_color=”off” border_style=”solid” disabled=”off”]

  Things to know…

 

[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”2_3″ disabled=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on”][et_pb_text background_layout=”light” text_orientation=”left” admin_label=”10 Tags” use_border_color=”off” border_style=”solid” disabled=”off”]

 A tag element is a word or phrase “tagged” on to the “end” of a sentence.

 

 

[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][/et_pb_section][et_pb_section transparent_background=”off” allow_player_pause=”off” inner_shadow=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”off” make_fullwidth=”off” use_custom_width=”off” width_unit=”on” custom_width_px=”1080px” custom_width_percent=”80%” make_equal=”off” use_custom_gutter=”off” fullwidth=”on” specialty=”off” admin_label=”The other punctuation Section” disabled=”off”][et_pb_fullwidth_slider show_arrows=”off” show_pagination=”off” auto=”off” auto_speed=”7000″ auto_ignore_hover=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”off” remove_inner_shadow=”off” background_position=”default” background_size=”default” hide_content_on_mobile=”off” hide_cta_on_mobile=”off” show_image_video_mobile=”off” admin_label=”Other Punctuation Slider” custom_button=”off” button_text_size=”20″ button_letter_spacing=”0″ button_use_icon=”default” button_icon_placement=”right” button_on_hover=”on” button_letter_spacing_hover=”0″ disabled=”off”][et_pb_slide button_link=”#” background_image=”http://www.thecraftedword.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/parchment-paper-with-flowers.jpg” background_position=”default” background_size=”default” background_color=”#ffffff” use_bg_overlay=”off” use_text_overlay=”off” alignment=”center” background_layout=”light” allow_player_pause=”off” text_border_radius=”3″ header_font=”||||” body_font=”||||” custom_button=”off” button_font=”||||” button_use_icon=”default” button_icon_placement=”right” button_on_hover=”on” disabled=”off”]

Other Cool Punctuation…

;   :   —   …

 

[/et_pb_slide][/et_pb_fullwidth_slider][/et_pb_section][et_pb_section transparent_background=”off” allow_player_pause=”off” inner_shadow=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on” make_fullwidth=”off” use_custom_width=”off” width_unit=”off” custom_width_px=”1080px” custom_width_percent=”80%” make_equal=”off” use_custom_gutter=”off” fullwidth=”off” specialty=”off” admin_label=”section” disabled=”off”][et_pb_row make_fullwidth=”off” use_custom_width=”off” width_unit=”off” custom_width_px=”1080px” custom_width_percent=”80%” use_custom_gutter=”off” gutter_width=”3″ allow_player_pause=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on” make_equal=”off” parallax_1=”off” parallax_method_1=”on” parallax_2=”off” parallax_method_2=”on” parallax_3=”off” parallax_method_3=”on” parallax_4=”off” parallax_method_4=”on” admin_label=”row” disabled=”off”][et_pb_column type=”4_4″ disabled=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on”][et_pb_text background_layout=”light” text_orientation=”left” admin_label=”Text” use_border_color=”off” border_style=”solid” disabled=”off”]

The Death of the Semi-Colon

Here is a lesson in creative writing. First rule: Do not use semicolons. They are transvestite hermaphrodites representing absolutely nothing. All they do is show you’ve been to college. ~Kurt Vonnegut

  “Let it die the death it deserves,” came the tough talk aimed at me by a devoted (and excellent)  teacher, trashing one of my favorite punctuation marks—and, still, he went on: “No one knows what a semi-colon really does, so why even use it in a sentence?” At first I took it like an affronted and indignant-grammarian: “Why you…” and reminded him that I am also the wrestling coach. But then I relaxed, because I realized that most people don’t really give a damn about punctuation marks unless it screws them up when reading? (kind of like that). If my friend has a problem with semi-colons, then it is his battle with his demons—not mine. Perhaps his animosity should be geared towards whomever taught him (or failed to teach him) about semi-colons in the first place. From my point of view, semi-colons are a pretty cool writing device–but, like strong medicine–best used wisely; otherwise, you’ll be like an obnoxious rich kid flashing money around just because you can. One of the coolest ways to use a semi-colon is to use it as a super comma—especially when you are trying to capture the nuances of a powerful image or thought. If the commonly used phrase to describe a sentence is to say that a sentence is a thought fully expressed, then why kill the thought early? We are not all as laconic as Hemingway or Calvin Coolidge.  We keep telling our kids that an important skill in life is the ability to “extend a conversation” when speaking with someone else—especially someone we don’t know well; and it is the semi-colon that lets us extend the conversation in a sentence; it works to keep the magic flowing.  For the most part, it seems like writers of old enjoyed their thoughts better than we do, for on the whole the old-timers used semi-colons more than we do to extend that special deliciousness of a good thought—like a long note played on a violin. Here is Mark Twain playing a long note in Huck Finn: [Note: when reading commas, let your breath hesitate briefly or breathe in slightly. Use a bit more of a stop with a semi-colon, but keep the flow going and don’t let your voice trail off or lose steam—because you got to keep on going, baby; you’ve got more that people need to hear, and you don’t want to lose whatever precious audience you have.]

It was one of these regular summer storms. It would get so dark that it looked all blue-black outside, and lovely; and the rain would thrash along by so thick that the trees off a little ways looked dim and spider-webby; and here would come a blast of wind that would bend the trees down and turn up the pale under-side of the leaves; and then a perfect ripper of a gust would follow along and set the branches to tossing their arms as if they was just wild; and next, when it was just about the bluest and blackest — fst! it was as bright as glory, and you’d have a little glimpse of tree-tops a-plunging about away off yonder in the storm, hundreds of yards further than you could see before; dark as sin again in a second, and now you’d hear the thunder let go with an awful crash, and then go rumbling, grumbling, tumbling, down the sky towards the under side of the world, like rolling empty barrels down stairs — where it’s long stairs and they bounce a good deal, you know.

Now that is a writer who appreciates a good storm, and Twain certainly wasn’t going to let us out of this sentence until his thought was fully expressed! By not forcing a full stop by using a period, the effect of the imagery layered upon more imagery (but all describing one storm) is more heightened and more “storm-like,” which is precisely what Twain probably set out to do. And here is Henry David Thoreau in Walden using semi-colons in a similar way; except here the semi-colons are used as a sort of super-commas that deliver a series of thoughts—all of which are directly connected to the scathing and damning thought in the first clause of the sentence.

 It is very evident what mean and sneaking lives many of you live, for my sight has been whetted by experience; always on the limits, trying to get into business and trying to get out of debt, a very ancient slough, called by the Latins aes alienum, another’s brass, for some of their coins were made of brass; still living, and dying, and buried by this other’s brass; always promising to pay, promising to pay, tomorrow, and dying today, insolvent; seeking to curry favor, to get custom, by how many modes, only not state-prison offences; lying, flattering, voting, contracting yourselves into a nutshell of civility or dilating into an atmosphere of thin and vaporous generosity, that you may persuade your neighbor to let you make his shoes, or his hat, or his coat, or his carriage, or import his groceries for him; making yourselves sick, that you may lay up something against a sick day, something to be tucked away in an old chest, or in a stocking behind the plastering, or, more safely, in the brick bank; no matter where, no matter how much or how little.

That’s one sam hill of a sentence, even if you don’t live a mean and sneaking life! In both of these passages, two of America’s greatest writers use the semi-colon as a super-comma to tie together a series of images and/or thoughts. If only commas were used, both sentences would fall apart after a few clauses; if the writers chose to write a series of more compact sentences, the urgency and freshness of the thoughts would be deadened and lose a good part of their effect, but with the semi-colons acting as a loose glue holding together the clauses and planks of images and thoughts, we, as readers, share in the immediacy of the cascade of words; we give ourselves into the moment; moreover, we are rewarded by a thought that is fully-expressed, clearly-stated, and, above all, memorable. So, my angry friend, if you are still not convinced that a semi-colon deserves at least some respect, can you let it survive for another profound reason—one that is based on our almost mystic response to the sound of words strung together in groups of three. For some reason the power of the trinity in writing is immense. It even has a name. When you group a series of words, thoughts, phrases, or clauses into three’s, it creates something called a Tricolon. Tying together three clauses to make one amazing (and mystically enchanting) sentence out of three connected thoughts is a skill worth learning how to do. All it takes is three clauses, one semi-colon, a comma with a conjunction, and an end mark of some kind.

You can’t let other people dictate how you live; you can’t let other people impose their narrow prejudices, and you certainly can’t live someone else’s life!

Just by using that single semi-colon to connect the first and second clauses and the conjunction to lead into the final clause, the full sentence reads as a passionate plea, instead of a list of reasons. At least it does to me. In fact, anytime you have two clauses connected by a comma and a conjunction, you can always replace that comma and conjunction with a semi-colon—if (a big if) it sounds right to you. It is less abrupt than using a period. Instead, it creates a brief, yet connected, terseness. You can also just put in a period and create two sentences. If, woe to you, you insert a comma without the conjunction (Soyet, andor, norforbut; FANBOYS—or however you want to remember these “subordinating conjunctions), you create the dreaded comma splice and will no doubt incur the gleeful wrath of your teacher who has finally found something of substance to lower your grade even further.

I love the water, but I hate swimming. Perfectly fine. I love the water; I hate swimming. Perfectly fine. I love the water. I hate swimming. Perfectly fine. I love the water, I hate swimming.  AAARGHH!  YOU IDIOT! HAVE YOU ANY BRAINS?

     So what else justifies the existence of this punctuation mark? Here is a good one: You can use a semi-colon to separate different states and cities in a list of cities and states (not that this is a common writing practice).

We are going to Boston, Massachusetts; Manchester, New Hampshire; Hartford, Connecticut; Minnesota, Minnesota; New York, New York; Utah, Utah; and Washington, DC.

Got you there, didn’t I?  Otherwise, it would be comma madness. (And yes, I had to look up the cities and states that had the same names—except, of course, New York, New York.) OK. I am scraping the bottom of the barrel here, but there is one final—albeit a bit pretentious sounding—use of the semi-colon, and that is how to use a semi-colon with a conjunctive adverb and a comma to connect two otherwise perfectly happy sentences. But I’ll admit, I do feel smart when I use these, and you will, too–especially if your teacher is impressed by academic sounding language; however, (here I go) if you use too many conjunctive adverbs, you will have to sign up for a dating service to find friends. I won’t list all the conjunctive adverbs because I don’t want to be too closely associated with their use (and misuse); moreover, I am sure by this point, I have lost the few readers I had when I started this foolish and vainglorious exercise. Suffice to say, conjunctive adverbs are words like these: nonetheless, actually, accordingly, however, nevertheless, therefore, otherwise, etc.,…. I do appreciate that you have stuck with me this far; nevertheless, staying up late reading about semi-colons is not something you should brag about to your friends—both of them. Only kidding, of course. Thanks for reading!   ~Fitz

[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row make_fullwidth=”off” use_custom_width=”off” width_unit=”off” custom_width_px=”1080px” custom_width_percent=”80%” use_custom_gutter=”off” gutter_width=”3″ allow_player_pause=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on” make_equal=”off” parallax_1=”off” parallax_method_1=”on” parallax_2=”off” parallax_method_2=”on” parallax_3=”off” parallax_method_3=”on” parallax_4=”off” parallax_method_4=”on” admin_label=”row” disabled=”off”][et_pb_column type=”1_3″ disabled=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on”][et_pb_image src=”http://www.thecraftedword.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/Crafted-Big-Logo2.gif” show_in_lightbox=”off” url_new_window=”off” use_overlay=”off” sticky=”off” align=”left” force_fullwidth=”off” always_center_on_mobile=”on” admin_label=”Image” use_border_color=”off” border_color=”#ffffff” border_width=”1px” border_style=”solid” disabled=”off”]
[/et_pb_image][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”2_3″ disabled=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on”][et_pb_text background_layout=”light” text_orientation=”left” admin_label=”Text” use_border_color=”off” border_style=”solid” disabled=”off”]

How To Use the Semi-colon

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_text background_layout=”light” text_orientation=”left” admin_label=”Semi-colon uses” use_border_color=”off” border_style=”solid” disabled=”off”]

To Extend a Thought…

Most teachers of younger writers have a fear of long sentences, and, to be honest, longer sentences can be like trying to carry to many books under one arm up a crowed stairwell; but–like a fast flowing and dynamic conversation, the only way to capture the true power of words we sometimes “need” to keep the original thought alive longer than a simple compound sentence allows. Luckily, the semi-colon, viewed by an intelligent reader, is custom made to help create and sustain a powerful narrative flow.

To Add Brevity and Power to a Sentence…

It may seem oxymoronically to say that a semi-colon adds brevity, bit it can and does! The most common technique is to use a semi-colon in to replace a comma with a coordinating conjunction or a dependent clause.

For Example:

One could argue to simply put a period in there, and you can, but the semi-colon is the message to the reader that the first clause is directly tied to the second clause–plus the writer has removed what in his or her mind is excess words. It is not as jarring and abrupt as a period. In both of these cases, a long dash would serve the same purpose. The final choice should always be left up to the writer to decide what kind of effect he or she wants to create!  

To Create Parallel Structure… Parallel structure is a tried and true rhetorical technique that has been employed by great writers and orators since time began. It is a way of piling thought on thought to create a dynamic effect on the listener or reader. The semi-colon allows us to tie together clauses to help create this effect.

 

With Conjunctive Adverbs… Conjunctive adverbs are a “bit” like conjunctions because they connect two independent clauses.  The difference is that the conjunctive adverb shows “how” the the two independent clauses are related. Whenever you use a conjunctive adverb in a sentence, you should put a semi-colon before the conjunctive adverb and a comma after the conjunctive adverb. Just be sure there is an independent clause before the conjunctive adverb–AND after!

Here are some examples of conjunctive adverbs:

also, anyhow, anyway, as a result, at last, at the same time, besides, certainly, consequently, earlier, eventually, finally, for example, for instance, further, furthermore, hence, however, in addition, in any case, incidentally, indeed, in fact, in short, instead, in the meantime, later, likewise, meanwhile, moreover, namely, nevertheless, next, now, on the contrary, on the other hand, otherwise, perhaps, similarly, so (as in soooo…) still, subsequently, that is, then, therefore…

*See Comma Rule #7 for a more detailed discussion of conjunctive adverbs.  

 

To Act as a Super Comma… The comma does a superb job of helping you separate what needs to be separated, but sometimes there are just too many commas in a row–and with each succeeding comma the chance of reader befuddlement looms larger with each extension of the sentence.  In comes the semi-colon which can act as a super comma to help your words read with more clarity. To separate cities and states in a list of cities and states:

To separate long phrases within a sentence that already have commas in the phrase:

 

To Create a Tri-colon Essay Conclusion… Use a tri-colon sentence to start your conclusion; add a bit of parallel structure to restate your themes, and then finish finish with a sentence that has haiku-like brevity and beauty. It is perfectly acceptable to use the “I” voice if it feels like a better choice for you. The Tricolon Compound Sentence: Create a sentence with three “clauses.” Use a semi-colon after the first clause followed by a comma and conjunction before the last clause. This type of sentence is awesome because it allows you to express three related ideas in one sentence.

Parallel Structure: Create three or four four sentences (or clauses) that begin with the same type of phrase and which briefly captures the importance of each of the themes you wrote about in your body paragraphs. It should reflect your stating of the theme, but you don’t want to repeat word for word what you already wrote in your opening paragraph when you “stated the theme.”

Haiku Sentence: Remember that the term “haiku” means “insightful fun” in the Japanese language, so this sentence needs to try and reflect the totality of your essay with a brief, pithy and final burst of insightful fun!

This is how the conclusion looks when the separate parts are combined:

The first four books of The Odyssey give us a glimpse into the life and times of the ancient Greeks; [semi-colon] it gives us a lesson in the values and customs during the time of The Odyssey, and [conjunction] it gives us a story told through stories. Book I introduces us to….Book II explores the…, while Book III shows…. Finally,[transition word]  Book IV describes the importance of… If there is anything to learn from these four books, it is, as Herman Melville once said, “A mighty book requires mighty themes,” and The Odyssey, so far, is one exciting, memorable, and mighty story! [I added one more tricolon for effect:)]

 

[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][/et_pb_section][et_pb_section transparent_background=”off” allow_player_pause=”off” inner_shadow=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on” make_fullwidth=”off” use_custom_width=”off” width_unit=”off” custom_width_px=”1080px” custom_width_percent=”80%” make_equal=”off” use_custom_gutter=”off” fullwidth=”off” specialty=”off” admin_label=”section” disabled=”off”][et_pb_row make_fullwidth=”off” use_custom_width=”off” width_unit=”off” custom_width_px=”1080px” custom_width_percent=”80%” use_custom_gutter=”off” gutter_width=”3″ allow_player_pause=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on” make_equal=”off” parallax_1=”off” parallax_method_1=”on” parallax_2=”off” parallax_method_2=”on” parallax_3=”off” parallax_method_3=”on” parallax_4=”off” parallax_method_4=”on” admin_label=”row” disabled=”off”][et_pb_column type=”4_4″ disabled=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on”][et_pb_text background_layout=”light” text_orientation=”left” admin_label=”Colon Intro” use_border_color=”off” border_style=”solid” disabled=”off”]

How to Use the Colon

   The colon is the red light of any writing piece. It is a place where you come to a complete stop, look in every direction and then proceed slowly. When I was young we were taught to count to two whenever our reading bumped into a  colon. A colon indicates that something important is coming: a list of things will follow, a majestic or necessary quote is about to be quoted, a cool and interesting thought is about to be added, or a bit of relevant and factual information is going to be addressed. In most cases, since the colon is within a sentence, there is no need to capitalize the first word after the colon, but you should if a long quote follows the colon, or if you add an additional, fully expressed thought that can work as a complete sentence.  

[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row make_fullwidth=”off” use_custom_width=”off” width_unit=”off” custom_width_px=”1080px” custom_width_percent=”80%” use_custom_gutter=”off” gutter_width=”3″ allow_player_pause=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on” make_equal=”off” parallax_1=”off” parallax_method_1=”on” parallax_2=”off” parallax_method_2=”on” parallax_3=”off” parallax_method_3=”on” parallax_4=”off” parallax_method_4=”on” admin_label=”row” disabled=”off”][et_pb_column type=”1_3″ disabled=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on”][et_pb_image src=”http://www.thecraftedword.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/Crafted-Big-Logo2.gif” show_in_lightbox=”off” url_new_window=”off” use_overlay=”off” sticky=”off” align=”left” force_fullwidth=”off” always_center_on_mobile=”on” admin_label=”Image” use_border_color=”off” border_color=”#ffffff” border_width=”1px” border_style=”solid” disabled=”off”]
[/et_pb_image][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”2_3″ disabled=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on”][et_pb_text background_layout=”light” text_orientation=”left” admin_label=”Colon Title” use_border_color=”off” border_style=”solid” disabled=”off”]

Uses of the Colon

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_text background_layout=”light” text_orientation=”left” admin_label=”Text” use_border_color=”off” border_style=”solid” disabled=”off”]

Introducing Quotes

Things To Know…

If a quote is introduced by a verb, simply place a comma after the verb that leads into the quote.  

If the quote is preceded by a noun, use a colon.

The exception to this rule is if you are quoting a lengthy or important quote. In that case, always use a colon, whether or not you use a verb or noun before the quote.

If the quote is three or more lines of text on the page, be sure to use a colon and “block quote” the text. One of the difficulties in having online text on different devices is that it is difficult to know how three lines will display on an iPhone, computer screen or tablet. My advice if you are publishing for the web is to just use common sense and do what feels right to you.

Introducing Lists

Things To Know…

The same basic rules you use with quotes apply here–except you do not need to add a comma or colon after a verb introducing a list.

No colon need after a verb:

A colon is needed after a noun:

Adding Additional Thoughts, Ideas or Explanations

Things To Know…

In most cases it is not needed to use colons to introduce a thought or idea, but if you really want the reader to pay attention to what you are about to say, the colon is a useful and effective way to get a reader’s attention. Always  use a noun and colon to introduce the idea or thought. If a verb introduces the thought, no colon is needed because the verb is “doing” the introduction. The decision to use a noun or verb is up to you, but if added effect is what you are after, use colons sparingly; otherwise, your writing will sound and feel self-important, pretentious and artificial.

Adding a Thought:

Adding an Idea:

Adding an Explanation:

  More Tips & Tricks of Colon Usage…

 

When To Use a Capital Letter after a Colon: One of the drudgeries of being a teacher is to have a comment returned by an administrator because I used a capital letter to start whatever came after my colon, but sometimes you should–or at least you can and you’ll be right, not that my boss agrees with me.  

 

Full Sentences Follow the Colon:

 

Addressing a Formal Letter: When writing a formal letter, place a colon after the salutation.

If it is an informal letter, a comma after the salutation is common practice:

 

After an Introductory Word or Phrase:

  Hopefully, this helps you get a better grasp of most of the range of colon uses–but it is a pretty good start!  

[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][/et_pb_section][et_pb_section transparent_background=”off” allow_player_pause=”off” inner_shadow=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on” make_fullwidth=”off” use_custom_width=”off” width_unit=”off” custom_width_px=”1080px” custom_width_percent=”80%” make_equal=”off” use_custom_gutter=”off” fullwidth=”off” specialty=”off” admin_label=”section” disabled=”off”][et_pb_row make_fullwidth=”off” use_custom_width=”off” width_unit=”off” custom_width_px=”1080px” custom_width_percent=”80%” use_custom_gutter=”off” gutter_width=”3″ allow_player_pause=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on” make_equal=”off” parallax_1=”off” parallax_method_1=”on” parallax_2=”off” parallax_method_2=”on” parallax_3=”off” parallax_method_3=”on” parallax_4=”off” parallax_method_4=”on” admin_label=”row” disabled=”off”][et_pb_column type=”1_3″ disabled=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on”][et_pb_image src=”http://www.thecraftedword.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/Crafted-Big-Logo2.gif” show_in_lightbox=”off” url_new_window=”off” use_overlay=”off” sticky=”off” align=”left” force_fullwidth=”off” always_center_on_mobile=”on” admin_label=”Image” use_border_color=”off” border_color=”#ffffff” border_width=”1px” border_style=”solid” disabled=”off”]
[/et_pb_image][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”2_3″ disabled=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on”][et_pb_text background_layout=”light” text_orientation=”left” admin_label=”Text” use_border_color=”off” border_style=”solid” disabled=”off”]

Those Other Punctuation Marks

Take a look at your keyboard, and you will be sure to see some keys that seldom get used, often for good reason, but just as often because you might not want to how to use them–but sometimes because you don’t know how to use them.

We can fix that!

The Long Dash–or Double Dash!

I admit to being a long dash addict. Though it is seldom used in formal writing, it is a veritable powerhouse of narrative and creative writing–a fact that dismays me a bit as a believer that all writing is formal writing. The double dash helps a writer recreate the power of his or her inner voice by connecting thoughts, adding short or long asides, introducing new content, emphasizing parenthetical information–and sometimes to just add one more awesome insight tagged on to the end of the sentence. In short, used wisely (as in not all the time) it is a pretty cool tool in any writer’s toolbox.

Things To Know…

How to make a long dash:

 

To Add a Tag Element… Sometimes a writer might want to add an additional burst of insight or one more bit of information at the end of a sentence for emphasis. Oftentimes, an exclamation point completes the sentence.

 

To Highlight a Parenthetical Element… Parenthetical elements are little snippets of words that add detail and clarity to a sentence–but they are not “needed” in the sentence. usually, a pair of commas does the trick, or a set of parentheses (if you really want to add whispering tone to your writing–but, if you really want to show it out, use the long dashes!

 

Commas:

 

Parentheses:

 

Double Dashes:

 

To Replace a Colon… The long dash is a like a connector, and a discerning reader and writer will always sense that the long dash is connecting to something important, such as a meaningful quote, some kind of summary, or even just a list of items. The key is to avoid random usage of the long dash. Be thoughtful and discerning about “why” and when to use any punctuation. Quotes:

 

Summary:

 

Lists:

 

 

To Create Dialogue… Some writers, like James Joyce, stretch the boundaries of literature to make their readers experience writing in innovative and often dramatic ways. He used the long dash and did not use quotation marks to indicate dialogue, a style that reduces clutter on the page, and who will argue that it wasn’t effective?

I would not try to be “innovative” in formal writing where conventional usage is expected and revered, but in creative writing be brave enough to think and write differently. It is the hallmark of a great writer to try new ways and new techniques–and the long dash is just the tool to do it.    

 

[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][/et_pb_section][et_pb_section transparent_background=”off” allow_player_pause=”off” inner_shadow=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on” make_fullwidth=”off” use_custom_width=”off” width_unit=”off” custom_width_px=”1080px” custom_width_percent=”80%” make_equal=”off” use_custom_gutter=”off” fullwidth=”on” specialty=”off” admin_label=”Section” disabled=”off”][et_pb_fullwidth_slider show_arrows=”on” show_pagination=”on” auto=”on” auto_speed=”2000″ auto_ignore_hover=”off” parallax=”on” parallax_method=”off” remove_inner_shadow=”off” background_position=”default” background_size=”default” hide_content_on_mobile=”off” hide_cta_on_mobile=”off” show_image_video_mobile=”off” admin_label=”Pillars Slider” custom_button=”off” button_text_size=”20″ button_letter_spacing=”0″ button_use_icon=”default” button_icon_placement=”right” button_on_hover=”on” button_letter_spacing_hover=”0″ disabled=”off”][et_pb_slide heading=”READ…” button_text=”Learn more…” button_link=”http://www.thecraftedword.org/a/read/” background_image=”http://www.thecraftedword.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/o-BOOKS-facebook.jpg” background_position=”default” background_size=”default” background_color=”#ffffff” use_bg_overlay=”off” use_text_overlay=”off” alignment=”center” background_layout=”dark” allow_player_pause=”off” admin_title=”Read” text_border_radius=”3″ header_font=”Georgia||||” header_font_size=”60″ header_font_size_tablet=”60″ header_font_size_phone=”60″ body_font=”||||” custom_button=”off” button_font=”||||” button_use_icon=”default” button_icon_placement=”right” button_on_hover=”on” disabled=”off”] [/et_pb_slide][et_pb_slide heading=”WRITE…” button_text=”Learn more…” button_link=”http://www.thecraftedword.org/a/write/” background_image=”http://www.thecraftedword.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/o-BOOKS-facebook.jpg” background_position=”default” background_size=”default” background_color=”#ffffff” use_bg_overlay=”off” use_text_overlay=”off” alignment=”center” background_layout=”dark” allow_player_pause=”off” admin_title=”Write” text_border_radius=”3″ header_font=”Georgia||||” header_font_size=”60″ header_font_size_tablet=”60″ header_font_size_phone=”60″ body_font=”||||” custom_button=”off” button_font=”||||” button_use_icon=”default” button_icon_placement=”right” button_on_hover=”on” disabled=”off”] [/et_pb_slide][et_pb_slide heading=”CREATE” button_text=”Learn more…” button_link=”http://www.thecraftedword.org/a/create/” background_image=”http://www.thecraftedword.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/Mending-the-Net-1.jpg” background_position=”default” background_size=”default” background_color=”#ffffff” use_bg_overlay=”off” use_text_overlay=”off” alignment=”center” background_layout=”dark” allow_player_pause=”off” admin_title=”CREATE” text_border_radius=”3″ header_font=”Georgia||||” header_font_size=”60″ header_font_size_tablet=”60″ header_font_size_phone=”60″ body_font=”||||” custom_button=”off” button_font=”||||” button_use_icon=”default” button_icon_placement=”right” button_on_hover=”on” disabled=”off”] [/et_pb_slide][et_pb_slide heading=”SHARE…” button_text=”Learn more…” button_link=”http://www.thecraftedword.org/a/share/” background_image=”http://www.thecraftedword.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/mending-nets.jpg” background_position=”default” background_size=”default” background_color=”#ffffff” use_bg_overlay=”off” use_text_overlay=”off” alignment=”center” background_layout=”dark” allow_player_pause=”off” admin_title=”Share ” text_border_radius=”3″ header_font=”Georgia||||” header_font_size=”60″ header_font_size_tablet=”60″ header_font_size_phone=”60″ body_font=”||||” custom_button=”off” button_font=”||||” button_use_icon=”default” button_icon_placement=”right” button_on_hover=”on” disabled=”off”] [/et_pb_slide][et_pb_slide heading=”COLLABORATE” button_text=”Learn more…” button_link=”http://www.thecraftedword.org/a/collaborate/” background_image=”http://www.thecraftedword.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/Joseph-Mallord-William-Turner-Paintings-A-Coast-Scene-with-Fishermen-Hauling-a-Boat-Ashore-1803.jpg” background_position=”default” background_size=”default” background_color=”#ffffff” use_bg_overlay=”off” use_text_overlay=”off” alignment=”center” background_layout=”dark” allow_player_pause=”off” admin_title=”COLLABORATE” text_border_radius=”3″ header_font=”Georgia||||” header_font_size=”60″ header_font_size_tablet=”60″ header_font_size_phone=”60″ body_font=”||||” custom_button=”off” button_font=”||||” button_use_icon=”default” button_icon_placement=”right” button_on_hover=”on” disabled=”off”] [/et_pb_slide][et_pb_slide heading=”ASSESS” button_text=”Learn more…” button_link=”http://www.thecraftedword.org/assess/” background_image=”http://www.thecraftedword.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/856-part.jpg” background_position=”default” background_size=”default” background_color=”#ffffff” use_bg_overlay=”off” use_text_overlay=”off” alignment=”center” background_layout=”dark” allow_player_pause=”off” admin_title=”ASSESS” text_border_radius=”3″ header_font=”Georgia||||” header_font_size=”60″ header_font_size_tablet=”60″ header_font_size_phone=”60″ body_font=”||||” custom_button=”off” button_font=”||||” button_use_icon=”default” button_icon_placement=”right” button_on_hover=”on” disabled=”off”] [/et_pb_slide][et_pb_slide heading=”REFLECT” button_text=”Learn more…” button_link=”http://www.thecraftedword.org/a/reflect/” background_image=”http://www.thecraftedword.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/651lot468.jpg” background_position=”default” background_size=”default” background_color=”#ffffff” use_bg_overlay=”off” use_text_overlay=”off” alignment=”center” background_layout=”dark” allow_player_pause=”off” admin_title=”REFLECT” text_border_radius=”3″ header_font=”Georgia||||” header_font_size=”60″ header_font_size_tablet=”60″ header_font_size_phone=”60″ body_font=”||||” custom_button=”off” button_font=”||||” button_use_icon=”default” button_icon_placement=”right” button_on_hover=”on” disabled=”off”] [/et_pb_slide][/et_pb_fullwidth_slider][/et_pb_section][et_pb_section transparent_background=”off” allow_player_pause=”off” inner_shadow=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on” make_fullwidth=”off” use_custom_width=”off” width_unit=”off” custom_width_px=”1080px” custom_width_percent=”80%” make_equal=”off” use_custom_gutter=”off” fullwidth=”off” specialty=”off” admin_label=”Section” disabled=”off”][et_pb_row make_fullwidth=”off” use_custom_width=”off” width_unit=”off” custom_width_px=”1080px” custom_width_percent=”80%” use_custom_gutter=”off” gutter_width=”3″ allow_player_pause=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on” make_equal=”off” parallax_1=”off” parallax_method_1=”on” parallax_2=”off” parallax_method_2=”on” parallax_3=”off” parallax_method_3=”on” parallax_4=”off” parallax_method_4=”on” admin_label=”Row” disabled=”off”][et_pb_column type=”4_4″ disabled=”off” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on”][et_pb_text background_layout=”light” text_orientation=”left” admin_label=”Text” use_border_color=”off” border_style=”solid” disabled=”off”]

TheCraftedWord.org

Tell Your Story

[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][/et_pb_section]